Short characteristic of the disease. Vascular failure is a disturbed local or general blood circulation, which is mainly caused by the insufficient function of blood vessels. Such insufficient function can be caused by decreased permeability and tone of vessels, which results in reduced blood volume transportation. Vascular failure can be systematic or localized, which depends on the failure development system.
By the type of current of the disease, vascular failure can also be divided into acute and chronic. It’s very hard to diagnose the vascular failure without any other symptoms because usually, it’s developing simultaneously with heart muscle failure.
The vascular failure usually appears due to a constant affection of similar factors to the heart muscle and the vascular muscle system. Sometimes cardiovascular insufficiency can be a result of other heart muscle pathologies, such as insufficient blood flow, low blood pressure in the arteries, etc.
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Causes of disease
The main reason for this disease is a circulatory disorder in veins or arteries, which can be caused by many reasons. In general, the acute vascular failure appears after craniocerebral or general injuries, various heart diseases, in case of significant blood loss or in various pathological states, e.g. acute poisoning, severe infection, extensive burns, organic diseases of the nervous system or adrenal insufficiency.
Symptoms of vascular failure
Acute vascular failure usually appears in forms of fainting, shock, and collapse. Fainting is the lightest form of vascular failure. Main symptoms of the vascular failure during fainting: weakness, nausea, darkening of the eyes and rapid loss of consciousness.
Heartbeat is weak and rare, blood pressure is low, the skin is pale, muscles are relaxed and no seizures can be recorded. In case of collapse or shock, patients are usually conscious, but show inhibited reactions. They tell about weakness, decreased temperature and pressure (80\40 mmHg or lower) or tachycardia.
The main symptom of vascular failure is the fast and immediate reduction of blood pressure, which causes all other symptoms. Chronic vascular failure usually appears in the form of arterial hypotension. This state can be diagnosed in the following cases: for older children – when the systolic pressure is lower than 85; for people below 30 years old – when the blood pressure is lower than 105/65; for older people – when the blood pressure is lower than 100/60.
Diagnostic of the disease
During the examination of the patient, the doctor evaluates the main symptoms of the vascular failure and identifies the form of the vascular failure, which can be fainting, shock or collapse. At the same time, blood pressure is not the main factor for diagnosis, because the doctor has to check the history of the disease and identify the reason for the attack.
It’s simply vital to identify the type of failure (i.e. heart or vascular) because these states require totally different acute management. In case if the patient has a cardiovascular failure, he or she has to sit, because the horizontal state will significantly worsen the state of the patient. In the case of vascular failure, the patient has to be in a horizontal state, because it allows keeping proper brain blood supply.
The skin of the patient will have different colors: pinkish in case of heart failure and pale or even gray in case of vascular failure. The vascular failure is usually accompanied by normal venous pressure, collapsed veins on the neck, fixed cardiac borders and lack of pulmonary congestion, which is typical for heart failures.
After finding the diagnosis, using the overall clinical picture, doctors provide first aid to the patient and hospitalize if necessary, preparing the diagnostic of the circulatory system. Such diagnostic can include vessels auscultation, electrocardiography, sphygmography or phlebography.
Vascular Failure Protocol by Dr. Radu Scurtu